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西部支教李正荣教授第十讲《涅克拉索夫定义俄罗斯》
发布时间:2022-05-19     浏览量:430

青海师范大学中国语言文学一级学科研究生通识课程
“跨文化中国学研究方法论”第十讲
李正荣教授涅克拉索夫定义俄罗斯》

 

 

主讲教授简介:李正荣,北京师范大学教授,俄罗斯文学研究专家。北京师范大学跨文化研究院副院长、北京师范大学基督教文学研究中心主任。高校外国文学教学学会常务理事。主要出版著作有《托尔斯泰传》、《托尔斯泰的体悟与托尔斯泰的小说》等多种,整理出版其导师刘宁先生的遗著《跨文化俄苏文学访谈录》。获俄罗斯文学会颁发的莱蒙托夫奖章,多次获北京市优秀教学成果奖。李正荣教授在“教育援青”人文学科建设基础用书中撰写并出版《俄罗斯十九世纪文学十讲》,并为青海师大文学院研究生授课,共两讲,本次是第二讲。

 

青海师范大学中国语言文学一级学科“跨文化中国学研究方法论”研究生课进入第十讲,时间是2022514日,主讲人为北京师范大学李正荣教授,题目是《涅克拉索夫定义俄罗斯》。青海师范大学文学院、青海师范大学高原科学与可持续发展研究院、北京师范大学跨文化研究院、北京外国语大学、南开大学等校师生近80人上线听讲。青海师范大学文学院副院长刘晓林教授主持本课。

 

此讲为李正荣教授为本学期研究生系列课程准备的第二讲,与第一讲有关,也有差别。本讲介绍涅克拉索夫,与上一讲介绍的陀思妥耶夫斯基相比,他们都是距今两百多年的俄罗斯著名作家,但身后的命运大不相同,一个冷,一个热。李正荣教授今天重点讲被冷落者。

 

20世纪60年代以来,世界人文革命领域发生了巨大变革,同时全球范围内的冷战也在延续,一批名人被“冻住(frozen)”。此后人文科学的一个任务就是“解冻”。李正荣教授告诉师生他怎样“解冻”。

 

一、下定义(definition)

 

此指把涅克拉索夫放到他所结交甚笃的别林斯基等思想家群体中考察,放到他所投身的革命民主主义运动中定位,放到他满腔热血歌颂的十二月党人理想层面界定,放到他的历史时代与社会思潮中定义,以及放到他对托尔斯泰的褒扬和对陀思妥耶夫斯基的鼓励看他的高度,评价他的诗篇和人民诗人形象。同学们了解到,涅克拉索夫与别林斯基、车尔尼雪夫斯基和杜勃留波夫一样,在俄罗斯19世纪灿烂辉煌的思想成就和文学艺术成就中诞生,携带了非凡的深刻性,具有整体超越性,这样就可以把定义涅克拉索夫与定义俄罗斯联系起来。

 

二、内部批评法(internal approach)

 

此指在文本分析上做出特殊的努力,主要是引用那些从内部文化的根基中生长出来的文本(金丝燕《跨文化学导论》,2022)。李教授的做法是,设定了12个问题,一步步打开尘封的表层,进入诗人的艺术、理性与逻辑观念的深处,反观如何理解其诗作的俄罗斯之问,了解怎样从当时、当地和当事人的立场出发,评价他的创作所达到的俄罗斯文学典型性的高度。

 

三、总体批评法(integral approach)

 

此指影响、平行因素的作用,容易与诗人社会改革的期待结合(金丝燕《跨文化学导论》,2022)。李教授指出,在涅克拉索夫时期,俄罗斯进步文人学者受到西方古典文论和黑格尔哲学的影响,也提出俄罗斯的学说。具体到涅克拉索夫,他笔下的官僚、农民生活、地主生活与富人、彼得堡、女性、母亲、儿童、大自然等,都关注被他赋予深切的关注。他将诗歌艺术作为思辨形式和文化变量加以运用,追求诗学,奔向最高理念,再返回这些具体形象中给出答案。什么是俄罗斯妇女?那就是美丽、坚贞、勇敢的代名词。什么是俄罗斯男人?那就是深邃、高贵,为俄罗斯命运而奋斗的俄罗斯人。什么是俄罗斯人民?那就是车夫、贫妻、父母、严寒的天气等鲜活的众生相。涅克拉索夫在俄罗斯的历史、地理、社会、文化、语言和民俗中编织经纬,其诗篇便具有历史意义、现实意义和未来意义。

 

李教授精心分析了涅克拉索夫的长诗《谁在俄罗斯生活得好》,告诉大家,这个句式,至今还可以使用,问俄罗斯、问世界,问住在地球村的人类,谁生活得更好?这是一个具有普遍性的问题,只要它还存在,涅克拉索夫就不会被真正“冻住”。

 

李正荣教授《涅克拉索夫定义俄罗斯》的授课现场(2022514日)

 

青海师范大学文学院副院长刘晓林教授和院长李国英教授分别做了课后总结。他们高度评价李教授的授课对于人文学科研究生课程教学的建设意义。研究生们则纷纷在网络留言区发言,写下青年人澎湃的激情、活跃的思考与满满的收获。

 

 

Postgraduate General Course of the First-Level Discipline
Chinese Language and Literature of Qinghai Normal University
“Methodology of Transcultural Study on Chinese Society and Culture” Invites
Professor Li Zhengrong to Deliver Lecture on
“Nekrasov Defines Russia”

 

On May 14th 2022, the tenth lecture of “Methodology of Transcultural Study on Chinese Society and Culture”, postgraduate general course of the first-level discipline Chinese Language and Literature of Qinghai Normal University, was delivered online by Professor Li Zhengrong from Beijing Normal University. The title of his lecture was “Nikolai Alekseevich Nekrasov (Некрасов Николай Алексеевич) Defines Russia”.

 

Compared with Dostoyevsky introduced by Professor Li Zhengrong in his last lecture, according to him, both Nekrasov and Dostoyevsky were great writers of Russia who lived more than 200 years ago, but their fate after death was very different. One was treated coldly, the other warmly. In this lecture, Professor Li Zhengrong focused on the one who was coldly neglected.  

 

Since the 1960s, a big change has come in the field of the humanistic revolution in the world. At the same time, the cold war has continued on a global scale, and a number of celebrities have suffered from being “frozen”. Since then, one of the tasks of the humanities has been to “unfreeze”.  Professor Li Zhengrong showed teachers and students how to “unfreeze” Nekrasov.

 

I. Definition

 

It denotes the way to examine Nekrasov in the group of thinkers, such as Belinsky, with whom he is well known, evaluate him in the revolutionary democratic movement to which he devotes himself, and define him on the ideal level of the Decemberists that he is passionately singing about. Like Belinsky, Chernyshevsky and Dobrolyubov, were born in the brilliant achievements of Russian thought as well as literature and art in the 19th century, carrying extraordinary profoundness and overall transcendence, so that the definition of Nekrasov can be connected with the definition of Russia.  

 

II Internal Approach

 

It refers to special efforts in textual analysis, mainly citing texts that have grown from their internal cultural roots (by Jin Siyan, 2022). The approach of Professor Li Zhengrong is also to observe Nekrasov’s question about Russia from the internal of the text. 

 

 

III. Integral Approach

 

It refers to the combination of influence study, parallel study, and reception studies. It is easy to combine with the expectation of social reform (by Jin Siyan, 2022). According to Professor Li Zhengrong, in the period of Nekrasov, the Russian literary circle was under the influence of Greek and Roman classical literary theory and Hegelianism from Germany. As for Nekrasov, He focused on and described bureaucrats, farm life, landlords and rich men, St. Petersburg, women, mothers, children, nature, and so on.  At the same time, he applied art as a form of critical thinking, pursued poetics, asked the question of Russia on the basis of the supreme idea, and gave his answer through shaping microscopic images. He combed through the evolution of Russia in history, geography, society, culture, language and folklore. Steadily and surely, such poems always have historical, present and future significance.

 

Professor Li Zhengrong meticulously analyzed Nekrasov’s long poem Who Lives Well in Russia? and told us that the same formula of this question, which is universal, could be used today to ask Russia, as well as the world. As long as it exists, Nekrasov cannot be truly “frozen”.  

 

(Trans.by Li Huafang)


友情链接: |  北京师范大学跨文化研究院|  北京师范大学民俗典籍文字研究中心| 北京大学跨文化研究中心