欢迎登录《跨文化对话》官方网站!

国际会议
首页 > 国际会议
西部支教程正民教授第七讲《文学作品中的场面》
发布时间:2022-04-25     浏览量:439

青海师范大学中国语言文学一级学科研究生通识课程

“跨文化中国学研究方法论”第七讲

程正民教授《文学作品中的场面

 

 

 

主讲教授简介:程正民,北京师范大学教授,1959年毕业于北京师范大学中文系。历任北京师范大学苏联文学研究所副所长、《苏联文学》杂志常务主编、北京师范大学中文系主任等职。现任教育部人文社科重点研究基地北京师范大学文艺学研究中心专职研究员,北京师范大学跨文化研究院学术委员会主任。主要研究方向为俄苏文论和文艺心理学。主要出版著作有《俄苏文学批评史》、《20世纪俄苏文论》、《列宁文艺思想与当代》、《巴赫金的文化诗学》、《从普希金到巴赫金》、《俄国作家创作心理研究》、《创作心理和文化诗学》、《艺术家个性心理和发展》、《跨文化研究与巴赫金诗学》等多种,发表学术论文逾百篇。程先生在“教育援青”人文学科建设基础用书中,撰写并出版《俄罗斯文学新视角》一书,并为青海师大文学院研究生亲自授课。


202249日,青海师范大学中国语言文学一级学科“跨文化中国学研究方法论”研究生课进入第七讲,北京师范大学著名俄罗斯文学研究专家和文艺学家程正民教授担任主讲,题目为《文学作品的场面》。青海师范大学文学院、青海师范大学高原科学与可持续发展研究院、北京师范大学跨文化研究院师生60余人参加了听讲。青海师范大学文学院副院长刘晓林教授主持本课。


程正民教授《文学作品中的场面》授课现场(2022423日)


“场面”研究不是一个大问题,今天看来还有点接近冷知识,却是学术史上未曾得到充分研究的一个基本问题。程正民教授说,他的老师黄药眠先生曾于1951年发表文章,讨论小说人物的登场,登场的“场”就涉及场面。马克思主义文艺家周扬也曾在早期谈到,文艺理论研究应注意三个层面,即基本概念、基本作品和基本训练,基本训练就是要会做具体作品分析。黄药眠先生还亲自给青年教师上课,分析冯梦龙《醒世恒言》中的《卖油郎独占花魁》,率先垂范,讲得非常好。他接着要求青年教师自己选文章分析作品,交作业,他来修改,改得一丝不苟。他就是这样训练我们的基本功。现在的文学研究课喜欢讲大道理,忽略作品分析,这很可惜。他讲这门课得益于老师的教导。

 

程先生此课分为四个专题进行:一、场面的概念,二、场面的作用、三、大小场面及其关联,四、场面的风格。程先生从概念讲起,指出,场面是作品构成的重要因素,是由人物在一定时空发生关系而组成的生活情景。人物、情节、场面是构成文艺作品的三要素,只研究人物和情节,不研究“场面”,同样不能深入到作品的艺术世界中去。程先生使用五部中外经典名著展开分析,包括世界闻名的俄罗斯文学家托尔斯泰的《战争与和平》和《安娜·卡列妮娜》,陀思妥耶夫斯基的《白痴》,中国古典小说巨著《水浒传》和《红楼梦》。根据程先生的分析,场面的功能在于推动情节的发展,表达人物性格和人物关系;大场面表现大事件,小场面用于情节的勾连、展现人物经历的变化。场面的风格取决于叙事的风格,在托尔斯泰的小说中,抒情哲理色彩的场面风格与叙事风格是一致的。在陀思妥耶夫斯基笔下,讽刺、噱谑、紧张、冲突的叙述伴随着富于戏剧性的场面。在《水浒传》中,绿林兄弟的叙事与聚义反抗的场面互动,在《红楼梦》中,荣宁王府兴衰的叙事与宝黛爱恨的场面互补。不同的叙事风格呈现不同的场面风格。

 

程先生研究文学作品的场面,在学科性质上,属于文艺学与俄罗斯文学的交叉研究。在方法论上,属于跨文化研究。在对话与场面的互构上,属于共时性研究。我国是一个历史文化大国兼文学大国,历时性研究是传统国学研究的工具,共时性研究则有利于拓展历时性研究,同时也能促进跨文化中国学的研究。程先生带领师生将《战争与和平》与《水浒传》,安娜·卡列尼娜与林黛玉、宝玉与安德烈都放到一个“场面”框架下中思考,令人眼界大开,又妙趣横生。

 

程先生的授课语调平静、思考深刻、视角独特而逻辑性极强,对场面描写和场景对话的朗读生动细腻而波澜不惊,可见英年读书的沉浸,烂熟于心的作品功夫,与长期治学从教的深厚积淀。

 

刘晓林教授做课后讲评。恰逢国际读书日和“书香中国”日,他感慨地说,在这个日子里聆听程先生授课,重拾对《苏联文艺》的回忆,唤起重读名著的冲动,共享博览群书的智慧,这正是对读书日的一种致敬。程先生强调具体作品分析给我们带来的新启示是,语言教学的目标,是培养学生的文学观察力和艺术感知力,理论抽象不能代替作品分析。青海师范大学文学院院长暨北京师范大学李国英教授讲话,从人文学科建设的角度阐释程正民教授投入西部教学的示范性意义。他深情地回忆说,自己是程先生那一代学者的后学,也曾有幸与程先生在北师大文学院(前身为中文系)的领导班子中共事多年,程先生重视继承传统、认真培养人才、大力加强教学科研改革,系统进行人文学科的建设工作,为北师大文学院的现代化转型和特色化建设做出了重大贡献。程先生在文艺学、俄罗斯文学和跨文化学等多领域也都取得了很高的成就。程先生淡泊名利、行事低调、为人谦和、与人为善,学为人师、身正为范,深受师生的爱戴,是广大师生学习的榜样。青海师大高原科学与可持续发展研究院曹昱源主任向程先生的精彩授课表示衷心的感谢!


 

Postgraduate General Course of the First-Level Discipline Chinese

 Language and Literature of Qinghai Normal University

“Methodology of Transcultural Study on Chinese Society and Culture” Invites

Professor Cheng Zhengmin to Deliver Lecture on

“Scenes in Literary Works”


On April 9th, 2022, the seventh lecture of “Methodology of Transcultural Study on Chinese Society and Culture”, postgraduate general course of the first-level discipline Chinese Language and Literature of Qinghai Normal University, was delivered online by Professor Cheng Zhengmin, a famous Russian literature research expert and literary theory specialist of Beijing Normal University. The title of his lecture is “Scenes in Literary Works”. More than 60 participants attended the lecture online, including postgraduates and teachers from College of Chinese Language and Literature of Qinghai Normal University, Academy of Plateau Science and Sustainability of Qinghai Normal University, and College of Transcultural Studies of Beijing Normal University. Professor Liu Xiaolin, vice dean of College of Chinese Language and Literature, QNU, presided over the lecture.

 

The study of  “scene” is not a big problem. It seems a little close to marginal knowledge today. Anyway it is a basic question that has been raised in scholarly history but has not been sustainably studied. According to Professor Cheng Zhengmin, Master Huang Yaomian who had been his supervisor during 1950s published an article in 1951 discussing the appearance of characters in the novel. Appearing on the scene has something to do with “scene”. Zhou Yang, a specialist of Marxist literary theory, also said in his early days that the study of literature and art theory should concentrate on three levels: basic concepts, basic works and basic training, namely, the analysis of works. In the 1950s, Professor Huang also taught young teachers, for instancehe analyzed the story of “The Oil Vendor and the Courtesan” from Stories to Awaken the World written by Feng Menglong. He did a very good job. He asked young teachers to choose articles for works analysis and basic training and graded their homework afterwards meticulously. In recent years, it is a pity that the literature research is in vogue to talk about the big truth, while the specific work research is insufficient. According to Professor Cheng, characters, plots and scenes are all elements of literary and artistic works. If we only study characters and plots and ignore “scenes”, we cannot go deep into the art world of works.

 

Professor Cheng’s lecture is divided into four topics: the concept of scenes, the role of scenes, large and small scenes and their correlation, and the style of scenes. He used five Chinese and foreign classics for his analysis, including War and Peace and Anna Karenina by Russian writer Leo Tolstoy, The Idiot by Dostoevsky, and the Chinese classical novels Water Margin and Dream of the Red Chamber. He pointed out that the scene is an important factor in the composition of the work. It is the life scene which is composed of the relationships between the characters in a certain time and space. The function of the scene is to promote the development of the plot, express the personalities and relations of characters. The big scenes show the big events. Small scenes are also essential for connecting the plots and reflecting the ups and downs of the character’s experience. Scene style depends on the narrative style. Tolstoy’s works with lyrical and philosophical scenes, Dostoevsky’s dramatic scenes, the gathering and rebelling scenes of forest outlaws in Water Margin, as well as the love and hatred scenes of Jia Baoyu and Lin Daiyu in Dream of the Red Chamber, all present themselves differently according to their different narrative styles.

 

In terms of subject nature, Professor Cheng’s discussion of scenes in literary works, belongs to the interdisciplinary study of literature and art and Russian literature.  In terms of the methodology, it belongs to the transcultural study. Scene research is characterized by synchronic research, which can supplement diachronic research.  China is a historical and cultural country as well as a literary country. Diachronic research is the tool of traditional Sinology research, while synchronic research is conducive to expanding the scope of diachronic research and promoting the research of transcultural sinology.  

 

Professor Liu Xiaolin commented on the lecture afterwards. According to him, Professor Cheng emphasized the necessity of analyzing specific works to give us new inspirations. At the same time, Professor Cheng also told us that one of the goals of language teaching is to cultivate students’ literary observation and artistic perception, and theoretical speculation cannot replace analysis of works.  Professor Li Guoying, dean of College of Chinese Language and Literature, QNU and professor of School of Chinese Language and Literature, BNU, explained the demonstrative significance of Professor Cheng Zhengmin’s engagement in teaching in western China from the perspective of humanities construction. Cao Yuyuan, office director of the Academy of Plateau Science and Sustainability of Qinghai Normal University, expressed his heartfelt thanks to Professor Cheng for his wonderful lecture. 

 

(Trans. by Li Huafang)    


友情链接: |  北京师范大学跨文化研究院|  北京师范大学民俗典籍文字研究中心| 北京大学跨文化研究中心